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Optical principles of classification and scientific research
Date:2013/7/16 8:58:55
Optical principles of classification and scientific research
Modern history of science and now we usually put into geometrical optics optics, physical optics and quantum optics.
Physical Optics
Physical Optics is from several experiments come from the basic principle, to study the propagation of light subjects. It uses the concept of light, refraction, to describe the law of reflection of light transmission medium in a variety of ways, it is almost always the result of wave optics approximation under certain conditions or limits.
Physical Optics
Physical Optics is the volatility of the departure from the light to study the propagation of light in a phenomenon that occurred during the disciplines, it is also known as wave optics. It can be relatively easy to study light interference, diffraction of light, polarized light, and the light transfer medium in anisotropy demonstrated when inserted phenomenon.
Wave Optics
Wave optics is the basis of classical electrodynamics Maxwell equations. Wave optics unknown permittivity and magnetic permeability of the material structure of the relationship, while focusing on the performance of law interpretation waves. Wave optics can be explained in light scattering medium and propagation phenomena anisotropic medium, and the optical performance of the medium near the interface; also explain the phenomenon of dispersion medium and a variety of pressure, temperature, acoustic, electric fields and magnetic phenomena of light effects.
Quantum Optics
1900 Planck blackbody radiation in the study, in order to derive theoretically get very good experience with the actual formula, he boldly presented with the classic concept of a very different assumption that the "component blackbody oscillator energy can not be continuously, can only take discrete values of a copy. "

In 1905, when Einstein photoelectric effect in the study of the promotion of the Planck quantum theory, and thus put forward the concept of photons. He considered not as light as described electromagnetic theory wavefront distribution, but rather focus on the so-called photon particles. In the photoelectric effect, when the photons to the metal surface, the primary electrons in the metal to absorb all without the electromagnetic theory that the projected cumulative energy of the time, the electronic part of this energy is used to overcome its metal surface that is, for the work function of suction, and the remaining leaves on the metal surface becomes electron momentum.

This departure from the nature of photons to study the interaction between light and matter is the subject of quantum optics. It is based primarily on quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.

This is both an expression of light and volatile nature of the phenomenon, with particles both for the wave-particle duality of light. Later research on theoretical and experimental indisputably proved: not only have this dual nature of light, the world of all substances, including electrons, protons, neutrons and atoms, as well as all the macro things, also have their own quality and speed fluctuations associated properties.
Applied Optics
Optics is composed of many closely associated with the branches of physics composition; due to its wide range of applications, so there is a series of strong application background branches also belong to the optical range. For example, on the physical measurement of electromagnetic radiation photometric, radiometric; normal average human eye as a receiver, to study the electromagnetic radiation caused color vision, and mental physical measurements of colorimetry; well as numerous Technical Optics: Optical system design and theory of optical instruments, optical fabrication and optical testing, interferometry, thin film optics, fiber optics and integrated optics; well with other interdisciplinary branches such as astronomical optics, marine optics, optical remote sensing, atmospheric optics, physiological optics and optical and other weapons.
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